The origin of Olonkho: Main Problems and discussions
Affiliation: Institute of the Humanities and the Indigenous Peoples of the North of Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch

The historiography of the yakut epos - Olonkho has a longest period of the development. First fixation of epic texts made by R.K.Maak and by O.N.Betlink in the middle of 19 century.

Earliest researchers (V.L.Seroshevsky, E.K.Pekarsky , S.V.Yasremsky etc.) marked ancient routs, connected it with a mythology and stages of Yakut pre-history. V.Y.Propp was the first a scientist who made wide comparisons and used Yakut materials in his theoretical studies. He interpreted the problem of the origin of the Olonkho based on Marxist methodology. So some specialists (V.M.Zhirmunsky) classified the Olonkho as tales about warriors. There are a lot of discussions surround such view. Among main opponents was I.V.Puchov, who develops the conception about the epic character of the Olonkho.

Almost all yakut researchers (G.V.Ksenofontov, P.A.Oiunsky, G.U.Ergis, D.K.Sivtsev, G.V.Vasiliev, A.P.Okladnikov etc.) supposed that yakit epos imaged in the Central Asia between 6-13 centuries. V.M.Nikiforov dated the Olonkho more earlier. N.V.Emelyanov had a separate view that Olonkho had formed after migration of south ancestors of Yakuts on the Middle Lena River. He based his theses on theoretical views of E.M.Meletinsky.

While the olonkho has many parallels with epic traditions of Altai, Khakas, Tyva, but researchers directed on original facts in the plot, characters, epic actions etc., which defined the special place of it among over Turkish eposes. Some researchers found relations of the olonkho with mongol epos, for example, in mystic actions of main actors. I think that the origin of the olonkho reflected main stages of Yakut pre-history before the migration of their ancestors to the North and being on the Middle Lena river. Some facts are showing on the meeting of two epic traditions – Turkish and Mongol. This is a perspective direction of modern studies.